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Bagastan Inscription of Iran and its connection with Gandhara (Ancient #India) & Hindu Kush (उपरिश्येन) mountains

  1. Antiquity: ~500 BCE
  2. Patronage: Darius, Achaemenid Empire


7th line of the Inscription mentions गन्धार (Gadaara in Persian) as a part of the Achaemenid Empire. Darius, in this Inscription, mentions about ~23 territories under his control. Gandhara is his easternmost territory.

Gandhara (गन्धार) was part of 16 महाजनपद of ancient #India (~600 BCE). . Later it was part of Indian #Maurya Empire (~310 BCE) as its North-Western territory. Due to its placement (West of River Sindhu), it was always a place of conflict between Indian and foreign powers.

Interestingly, the Akkadian translation of this #Inscription replaces गन्धार with Paruparaesanna (#Sanskrit उपरिश्येन - Beyond the Eagle/Hawk) due to the sky kissing mountains of this territory. These mountains, unfortunately, now popular as Hindu Kush (Killer of Hindus).